The second component of Patanjali’s Yoga path is called niyama, which includes virtuous habits, behaviors, and observances (the “dosa) Sadhana Pada Verse 32 lists the niyamas as:
Santo?a: contentment, acceptance of others, acceptance of one’s circumstances as they are in order esatto get the past or change them, optimism for self
Svadhyaya: study of Vedas (see Sabda per epistemology section), study of self, self-reflection, introspection of self’s thoughts, speeches and actions
Asana is thus a posture that one can hold for verso period of time, staying relaxed, steady, comfortable and motionless. Patanjali does not list any specific asana, except the terse suggestion, “posture one can hold with comodo and motionlessness”. The posture that causes pain or restlessness is not a yogic posture. Other secondary texts studying Patanjali’s sutra state that one requirement of correct posture is preciso keep breast, neck, and head erect (proper spinal posture). Padmasana (lotus), Veerasana (heroic), Bhadrasana (decent), Svastikasana (like the mystical sign), Dandasana (staff), Sopasrayasana (supported), Paryankasana (bedstead), Krauncha-nishadasana (seated heron), Hastanishadasana (seated elephant), Ushtranishadasana (seated camel), Samasansthanasana (evenly balanced) and Sthirasukhasana (any motionless posture that is per accordance with one’s pleasure)
Pra?ayama is made out of two Sanskrit words pra?a (?????, breath) and ayama (????, restraining, extending, stretching). It is the practice of consciously regulating breath (inhalation and exhalation). This is done per several ways, inhaling and then suspending exhalation for per period, exhaling and then suspending inhalation for a period, slowing the inhalation and exhalation, consciously changing the time/length of breath (deep, short breathing).
Pratyahara is per combination of two Sanskrit words prati- (the prefix ?????-, “towards”) and ahara (????, “bring near, fetch”). Pratyahara is fetching and bringing near one’s awareness and one’s thoughts preciso within. It is per process of withdrawing one’s thoughts from external objects, things, person, situation. It is turning one’s attention sicuro one’s true Self, one’s inner world, experiencing and examining self.
Dharana (Sanskrit: ?????) means concentration, introspective focus and one-pointedness of mind. The root of word is dh? (??), which has a meaning of “preciso hold, maintain, keep”. Dharana as the sixth limb of yoga, is holding one’s mind onto per particular inner state, subject or topic of one’s mind. Fixing the mind means one-pointed focus, without drifting of mind, and without jumping from one topic to another.
Dhyana (Sanskrit: ?????) literally means “contemplation, reflection” and “profound, abstract meditation”. Dhyana is contemplating, reflecting on whatever Dharana has focused on. If sopra the sixth limb of yoga one focused on a personal deity, Dhyana is its contemplation. If the concentration was on one object, Dhyana is non-judgmental, non-presumptuous observation of that object. Dhyana is distinct from Dharana in that the meditator becomes actively engaged with its focus. Patanjali defines contemplation (Dhyana) as the mind process, where the mind is fixed on something, and then there is “verso course of uniform modification of knowledge”.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: ?????) literally means “putting together, joining, combining with, union, harmonious whole, trance”. Samadhi is oneness with the subject of meditation. There is mai distinction, during the eighth limb of yoga, between the actor of meditation, the act of meditation and the subject of meditation. Samadhi is that spiritual state when one’s mind is so absorbed sopra whatever it is contemplating on, that the mind loses the sense of its own identity.
Objectives of Yoga
Patanjali defined yoga as Chitta Vritti Nirodha, which literally means that if you still the modifications and activity of the mind, you are mediante yoga. Everything has become feabie one sopra your consciousness. We may be pursuing many things in our lives and going through processes that we call achievements, but sicuro go beyond the modifications of the mind is the most fundamental and at the same time the highest achievement one can attain, because this releases a human being from what he is seeking – from what is within and what is outside – from everything.